Year 1985

Brown Michael
Medicine, 1985
United States
Brown Michael

Michael Brown was born in New York in 1941. In 1966, he received his Medical Doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1971 he joined the staff of the Dallas University School of Medicine, there he began his collaboration with Joseph Goldstein. In 1977, as a professor of genetics, he was appointed director of the Center for Genetic Diseases.

Brown and Goldstein received the 1985 Nobel prize in Physiology or medicine, “For their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, and for their research on the genetic disease that prevent it.”

The two scientists discovered the mechanism that transfers cholesterol from the blood into the cells, and which, at the same time, keeps the correct level of cholesterol in the blood, preventing it from accumulating on the walls of the arteries and disturbing the blood flow.

This mechanism operates by receptors, molecules on the outer surface of the cells, which “hunt” the cholesterol in the blood and transfer it into the cell, for various uses.

Brown and Goldstein’s findings show that insufficient amount of these receptors, due to a genetic defect or to inappropriate, high-cholesterol diet, disturbs the mechanism and causes atherosclerosis, strokes and heart attacks. This discovery urged them to look for medications that will encourage the activity of the receptors mechanism and prevent the blocking of the arteries.

If those medications are proven to be safe over a long period of time, maybe one day we will be able to eat a nice juicy steak and still live to enjoy it.

discovered the mechanism which regulates the level of cholesterol in the blood .
Goldstein Joseph
Medicine, 1985
United States
Goldstein Joseph

Joseph Goldstein was born in South-Carolina in 1940. In 1966 he received his medical doctorate in the university of Dallas, Texas. In 1971 he began researching the cholesterol metabolism together with Michael Brown at the university’s medical school. In later years he has done research on biochemical genetics at the National Institution of Health in Maryland.

Goldstein and Brown received the 1985 Nobel prize in Physiology or medicine, “For their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism,” and for their research on the genetic disease that prevent it.

The two scientists discovered the mechanism that transfers cholesterol from the blood into the cells, and which, at the same time, keeps the correct level of cholesterol in the blood, preventing it from accumulating on the walls of the arteries and disturbing the blood flow.

This mechanism operates by receptors, molecules on the outer surface of the cells, which “hunt” the cholesterol in the blood and transfer it into the cell for various uses.

Goldstein and Brown’s findings show that insufficient amount of these receptors, due to a genetic defect or to inappropriate, high-cholesterol diet, disturbs the mechanism and causes atherosclerosis, strokes and heart attacks. This discovery urged them to look for medications that will encourage the activity of the receptors mechanism and prevent the blocking of the arteries.

If those medications are proven to be safe over a long period of time,.maybe one day we will be able to eat a nice juicy steak and still live to enjoy it.

discovered the mechanism which regulates the level of cholesterol in the blood.
Modigliani Franco
Economics, 1985
United States
Modigliani Franco

Franco Modigliani was born in 1918 in Rome, Italy. He started studying economics by chance after winning the first prize in a national competition for university students, where he was asked to write an essay about the effects of price control. The Anti-Semitic atmosphere in Italy prior to World War II caused Modigliani to decide to emigrate to USA. In 1944 he received his PhD for Economics. He joined the staff of the University of Illinois, later he moved to the Carnegie Institute of Technology and finally to M.I.T, where he became a professor of economics and finance.

Franco Modigliani was awarded the 1985 Nobel prize “for his pioneering analysis of saving and financial markets”.

Modigliani contributed to established tools for evaluating the value of a company, capital price, the effect of taxes and others. These models marked a milestone in the modern theory of finance.

He developed mathematical formulations of the the Keynesian model. As a neo-Keynesian economist, Franco Modigliani believes in the real effect of money on the economy and that, under certain conditions, an increase of government budget can have a positive effect against economic depression.

developped indispensable tools for banking and business administration.
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